Some dangers that may be Faced in camping?
- Human factors
- Mixed factors
Crisis management caused by human factors
Leave the team
In the wild, it is very dangerous to leave the team.
To avoid this situation, discipline should be emphasized again and again before departure; a deputy team leader should be arranged to postpone.
When individual team members temporarily leave the team due to physical decline or other reasons (such as going to the toilet in the middle of the road), they should immediately notify the previous team to rest before stopping and arrange a special person to accompany the individual team member to leave the team. No matter what the situation, there must be more than two people. Action, it is strictly forbidden to act alone.
At the same time, be prepared in case you leave the team:
- All team members must be clear about the daily distance and time to reach the destination, and they cannot rely on the leader and follow blindly.
- Everyone must bring necessary personal equipment such as maps, compasses, kettles, food, lamps, and life-saving boxes. There must not be a situation where multiple people share certain equipment.
- In case of leaving the team, if you are convinced that you can continue to your destination, you must continue to move forward until you meet your teammates (not recommended); if you have limited physical fitness or panic too much, you should stay where you are, and then find a way to return The route of the group or the last camping site to find a refuge, waiting for the rescue of teammates.
- The team leader should always pay attention to counting the number of people. Once it is found that someone has left the team and has not returned, he should immediately arrange the entire team or wait in place or send someone to search.
in a wild environment off the beaten track. Especially in the woods where shrubs grow or where there are large rocks, it is easy to get lost unknowingly because you can't see the footprints. Sometimes it is possible to get lost in the rain, fog, or evening due to the lack of visibility.
When you get lost, never panic and walk around. This will only make you even more disoriented. First of all, it must be quiet. rest for a bit. Then, try to find the place you have confidence in. Mark up along the way. And record the location of these marks on the notebook.
To avoid getting lost again, after returning to a place where you are confident, try again by choosing your direction first. Make marks along the way and pay attention to the surrounding terrain, landforms, or natural objects until you find the correct direction, and send out a distress signal at an appropriate time.
Failed to reach the camp as planned
When doing field activities, if it is later than the scheduled time and the sky is getting dark before arriving at the destination, the following measures should be taken:
- If the distance is obvious, the current location is also certain, and the destination is not far away, you can light the lights and move on.
- However, if other unfavorable circumstances occur, such as rain and temperature drop, or get lost and cannot return to the original place, or if one of the team members is unwell. Or if it is dangerous to act in the dark, you should decide to stay overnight in the local area as a precaution. At this time, if you have a tent and you are looking for a place where you can set up a camp, you can set up a camp overnight in the usual way. However, if you do not bring a tent or the terrain is on a slope and cannot set up a camp, you should wear as many clothes as possible and keep warm. If you bring food and stoves, you can prepare meals.
- To prevent accidents, it is necessary to develop the habit of bringing plenty of water and emergency food.
Encounter a poisonous snake
When encountering a poisonous snake in the wild. It often happens in the following situations: accidentally stepping on a snake; scratching a branch and touching a snake; finding a snake when packing up a backpack in the morning; and so on.
This is caused by pedestrians breaking into the territory of snakes. These accidental contacts will cause great panic, and once bitten by the instinctive self-defense of a poisonous snake, it is very dangerous. The measure to prevent snake bites is to prepare a cane, and graze the snake while walking, because snakes seldom attack humans actively, and will leave wisely when frightened. If you find a poisonous snake, it is best to avoid it. This is the best. The way to avoid bites.
In addition, when doing field activities, especially in places where snakes are frequent. Just wear a hat, a long-sleeved jacket, and trousers with strong foot protection and tough boots. And bring snake medicine. When you need to catch or kill poisonous snakes. Try to use stones or "Y"-shaped branches to hit or control the head of the poisonous snake, try not to touch the snake with your hands, and place the snake in a cloth bag. Because the fangs of the poisonous snake are bent inward, it is not easy to hurt people in the cloth bag (note: catching a snake is very dangerous, don't try it lightly)
Encounter a beast
Except for hungry carnivores or injured beasts. Ordinary animals rarely attack humans actively. As long as we do not invade them, they will not attack. However, it is quite dangerous when we meet on a narrow road or when the food we carry attracts them. Talking loudly and blowing a whistle while on the move will startle some wild beasts. They will leave wisely. If you encounter bears, boars, and other wild beasts unexpectedly, don't be overly panicked. Slowly watch it keep smiling and move back.
Stay away from them, sometimes the beast will walk away on its own. When you encounter wolves or wild dogs, don't turn around and run away. You should squat down and pick up rocks and wooden sticks. And back to the stone wall or big tree to prevent them from attacking from behind, and wait for the opportunity to climb to the tree for refuge.
Mosquito bites, leeches harassment
There are two kinds of mosquitoes that bite people:
One is blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes, flies, and gnats. After biting, it is not only unbearable but also spreads serious diseases such as malaria and encephalitis. The preventive method is to use anti-mosquito spray or mosquito coils, but this will pollute the environment. The relatively environmentally friendly method is to smoke or use natural insect-proof plants such as tuberculosis and medicinal chrysanthemum. In places where there are many mosquitoes and horseflies, at least thoroughly wash the skin of the whole body with soap every day, and you should carry anti-mosquito drugs such as wind repellent oil.
The other is the bee, wasp, Vespa, etc. After being bitten by a bee, wasp, or Vespa, you will feel pain at first, and then the wound will swell and become inflamed. After a bee bite, there are usually sacs left in the wound. You should scrape the other out with a blade and wash the wound with soap and water. People who are prone to anaphylactic shock should always carry medicines and tell others how to use these medicines for themselves in an emergency after being bitten.
Falling rocks from high altitude
If you encounter a serious rockfall, you must take advantage of the gap where the rockfall is stopped, and quickly escape from the scene. You should look for large rocks or corners that can avoid the rockfall in advance to pass. It is more appropriate to protect the head by wearing some protective equipment (such as helmets, thick clothing, wooden boards, iron pots, etc.).
We should try our best to avoid rock falling caused by man-made. If you accidentally touch a rock in a rocky place, you should shout "Watch out for rock falling" and notify the people below to avoid major accidents. When the team encounters a hillside area that may cause rockfall, a safe and suitable distance should be maintained.
When encountering heavy rain, the team leader should make a quick decision based on the section of the road and the size of the rain, and the physical condition of the team members, to continue marching or to avoid the rain.
- When continuing to advance, due to heavy rain affecting visibility, more attention should be paid to identifying directions. Rain and wet roads are slippery, use safety ropes when necessary to ensure safety.
- When sheltering from the rain, keep warm, prevent lightning strikes, and prevent mountain floods.
- When encountering heavy rain during camping: A. Decide whether to make a camp transfer decision based on the surrounding terrain and the size of the rain, and move the tent to a safe place; B. Reinforce the tent and dig drainage ditches; C. Remove the extra items in the tent Organize it, put it in a backpack, and be ready to evacuate at any time; D must go out on duty in shifts. Once the dangers such as flash floods and mudslides are found, immediately evacuate the tent.
- The tower-shaped cumulus cloud in the sky is easy to form thunder and lightning when the rain comes.
- The hair is erected or the skin trembles, it is easy to be struck by lightning.
- If the weather predicts a thunderstorm.
- Do not move in narrow valleys or valleys.
- Do not go to high and open areas for activities.
- Pay attention to whether the cumulus rain increases or not.
Ways to avoid lightning strikes:
- Observe the astronomical conditions to judge the weather changes. It is necessary to quickly find shelter from the rain before it rains. If there is a cave in the wild, you can hide in the cave. It is strictly forbidden to hide in tin houses. It is better to hide under the rocks. If you want to hide next to a big tree or big rock, avoid hiding directly under it. Instead, squat down to avoid danger in a circle that is slightly away from these hidden objects and has the same radius as these hidden objects. According to research, the lightning protection effect is most significant when the height is one-fifth or less of the height of these trees and rocks.
- to avoid going into a place that is wet or there is already water, it is best to step on a plastic cloth or backpack and other insulators. Also, wear a raincoat to avoid getting wet. If you are in an open valley or grassland, look for low-lying places to squat down instead of lying down. If it is on the coastline, there are very small rocks, there is no place to hide, find a low-lying squat, do not use the mobile phone, you can put your feet together, put your hands on your knees, and bend forward (cannot sit on the ground or small rocks) ).
- Do not have any metal objects on your body. Take all the metal objects you carry on your body and put them in your backpack, especially the metal spectacle frames, belt buckles, trekking poles, etc. must be taken off. It is also important to note that everyone should not gather together to avoid collective disasters.
- When there is lightning, do not hide under any lightning protection equipment.
Note: When the mountain is covered by thunderclouds, thunder and lightning will also strike from the side. Therefore, we must pay special attention; the ridge is very dangerous. It is safer to hide in the flat wall area under the ridge.
Don't crowd together. Try to take a low posture. Take all the metal off and put it in your backpack. When thundering, it is also a good way to cross the coastline and hide in a place where there are many small rocks. If there are big rocks, you can hide within the same height as the big rocks, but remember not to stick to the big rocks; if you are in the forest, you can hide within the same distance as the forest height, but not directly under the big tree. Yes, everything! Note that a little water is easy to transmit electricity, so the place where there is water is very dangerous. It is strictly forbidden to stand in the water. It is safer to stand on a pad or step on a backpack.
- Give first aid in time and still have a chance to survive, so you can't give up.
- The patient lies on his back, undressed, and undressed.
- Artificial respiration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- Use your fingers or needles to puncture Renzhong acupoint, Shixuan (ten fingertips), Yongquan, Mingmen.
- When there is a heartbeat and breathing, send to the hospital in time.
Continuous rainfall is prone to flooding. It turned out that the clear water suddenly became turbid, which is a precursor to the same flash flood. At this time, you should first choose a tall treetop as a refuge, and move to a higher place in time. If you fall into the water, unfortunately, you should desperately grab your backpack (the backpack can act as a lifebuoy), or grab the big trees that rushed with the flood. Don't underestimate the power and speed of flash floods. The flowing water of a small stream is often caused by heavy rain from the upper reaches. The rainwater will gush down and turn into a huge mountain torrent within a few minutes. If tourists are in the stream, it is easily washed away by the flood, causing casualties.
(1), unless it is a well-prepared tracing activity, do not hike along the stream.
(2), in the summer rainy season, or after heavy rains, do not set foot in the stream.
(3) Do not stay in the river to rest when it rains, especially downstream.
(4). When it starts to rain, leave the river course quickly and go to the highlands on both sides of the bank.
(5) Do not try to cross a bridge that has been covered by river water, and leave the river course quickly.
(1) The weather is bad and worse during the activities in the canyons and valleys. When it rains, pay close attention to the changes in the amount of rainfall.
(2) When rapid water flow, turbidity, and rotting trees mixed with sand and mud are found, it is a harbinger of flash floods, and you should quickly stay away from rivers and valleys.
(3) If you fall into the turbulent river, unfortunately, you should hug or grasp the rocks, tree trunks, or vines on the shore, try to climb back to the shore, or wait for the rescue of your companions.
The topography of the swamp is mainly formed by the situation. The merging line formed by the two slopes of the ridge along the way flows the collected rainwater into the reservoir after a relatively long distance and washes down the soil and fine sand with the rainwater, and the rainwater flows when it enters the reservoir. Went into the reservoir, but the silt-down mud remained, forming a quagmire—a swamp.
Friendly reminder: When crossing the river in the gully beside the reservoir or the riverbed, you must carefully observe the topography and choose a suitable solid section to cross the river. If you can go around, don’t take risks. Before crossing the river, prepare the ropes and operate by the tactics of collective crossing the river in the wild.
- When the group is traveling, if it encounters marshes and wetlands, pay attention to observing and assessing the risks, and do not venture.
- When passing, every 5 people are connected by ropes, and the distance between people is kept at 2 to 3 meters. Some team members unfortunately fall into the swamp and can get timely help from their teammates.
- If you fall into the swamp from time to time, don't move around. Struggling hard will only sink deeper and deeper.
- You can loosen the backpack strap, put the backpack strap behind you, lie on your back on the backpack and pull out one leg, and then pull out another one. Or put the backpack on your chest, lie on your back, and "swim" out of the swamp.
In addition to fires caused by lightning and dry weather, human negligence is the biggest hidden danger of wildfires.
Attention should be paid to the safety of fire in the wild, and the system of fire in the wild should be strictly controlled, and cigarette butts and tinders should not be littered.
When having a picnic, prepare a bucket of water or sand and place it next to the campfire, ready for use at any time. When withdrawing from the camp, the campfire must be completely extinguished before leaving.
Once a mountain fire occurs, try to put out the fire in the early stage of combustion; when the fire is out of control, try to flee to safe areas such as the mountain or riverside as far as possible to avoid being trapped by the fire. Such as has been besieged by fire. You can protect yourself by cutting down or setting fire on the initiative, and use the surrounding woods and shrubs to form an open area after the fire is burned.
When an earthquake occurs, immediately extinguish the campfire, and escape to the open field or under the tree as soon as possible. The slopes of the mountains are very dangerous. The earthquake may cause mudslides. Never enter the cave.
Collapses are widely seen on mountain slopes, rivers and lakeshores, and coasts.
- Usually on steep mountain slopes above 50 meters or on rivers, lakes, or coasts, with a slope of 30-60 degrees.
- Followed by developed karst cracks and broken structures. It mainly occurs during heavy rains and melting seasons.
- Especially when the direction of the rock layer and the fracture surface isconsistent with the mountain slope, collapse is more likely to occur.
- During heavy rains or after consecutive days of heavy rains, natural or artificial slopes can easily lead to landslides and collapses after the infiltration of a large amount of rainwater.
- During heavy rains or after several days of heavy rains, avoid approaching or staying near steep mountain slopes.
- When a large number of muddy water leaks from the bottom of the slope or the drain hole, it indicates that the water in the slope is saturated, and there are cracks or newly formed cascades in the middle or top of the slope, exposing fresh soil, all of which are landslides. The precursor of collapse should be far away from these slopes as soon as possible.
- If a landslide collapses and blocks the road, do not try to step on the floating mud to move forward. You should step back immediately and find another safe trail to continue the journey or stop the journey.
- Teammates are covered by landslides. Don't try to rescue them by yourself to avoid more casualties.
- Immediately notify relevant departments to prepare appropriate tools for rescue.
Divided into four categories according to speed:
High-speed landslide-the most dangerous, landslides of several meters to tens of meters are formed every second
The main characteristics of landslides: It mostly occurs in the season of heavy rain and melting of snow and ice, and has the characteristics of heavy rain and heavy rain, light rain and small slip, and no rain.
The time when mudslides occur is usually the thunderstorm season in July and August each year.
How to determine the occurrence of debris flow?
- The normal flow suddenly stops or the flood suddenly increases, and there are more firewood and trees.
- There is a roar of train or muffled thunder from the deep valley. Even if it is extremely low, it should be determined that a mudslide has formed, and you must leave quickly.
- The deep valleys of the river valleys suddenly become dim, and there are landslides, and they must leave quickly, either as mountain torrents or mudslides.
- Do not enter the valley on heavy rain or continuous rain for several days, and beware of mountain floods, landslides, and mudslides.
- Debris flows often lag behind heavy rain and heavy rain.
- Don't leave a fluke.
- You cannot run up or down the ditch. Instead, you should run to the slopes on both sides, leaving the river, valley, and valley areas quickly.
- Don’t stay on a slope where the soil is soft and the main soil is unstable
- Evacuate in a place where the base is stable and relatively stable.
- Don't go up the tree to avoid it.
Causes: high temperature, improper clothing, lack of water, excessive fatigue, too long, poor sleep.
sub-types: threatened heatstroke, mild heatstroke, deep heat stroke.
aura of heatstroke: dizziness, headache, mouth drinking, excessive sweating, nausea, weakness of the limbs, rapid pulse.
Mild heat stroke: inattention, confusion of consciousness, and uncoordinated movements. The skin is clammy, the body temperature is often above 38 degrees, the complexion is flushed, sweating profusely, the skin is hot, and the limbs are warm and cold.
Heat cramps: Sweat a lot, drink by mouth, and cause muscle cramps (commonly known as cramps).
Insolation: Direct exposure to the sun causes damage to brain cells.
Heat exhaustion syndrome: Excessive dehydration, lack of salt, old age.
Heatstroke: Excessive physical exertion under high temperatures.
- Reasonably arrange activity time, leave early and return late at night, avoiding the hot time at noon. Ensure adequate sleep time before departure. Do not participate in activities with a bad mood or work pressure.
- the head cools down and dissipates heat in a short time. Participate in activities and wear suitable clothing that can dissipate heat. During the journey, soak the hat with water as much as possible to cool the head appropriately. When walking in a place where the sun cannot be irradiated, remove the hat in time to dissipate heat for a short time;
- take a break and choose a place to avoid the sun and ventilate. During the journey, take a long rest, and choose a place where you can avoid the hot sun and have a well-ventilated and cool place to rest. When resting, you should quickly remove the backpack, remove the hat, unbutton the sleeves and collar buttons, and pull up the high-leg pants to quickly dissipate heat.
- Pay attention to the walking rhythm and avoid excessive fatigue. A small amount, multiple times, scientific and reasonable, timely replenish water and salty foods, properly match some electrolyte-rich sports drinks.
- Undress, ventilate, get out of a high-temperature environment. (Bring a small number of iced drinks and ice cubes)
- Give the patient several refreshing drinks or electrolyte drinks to add water in time.
- Raise the patient’s feet and apply cooling oil, Fengyoujing, oral human pill, ten drops of water, Huoxiangzhengqi water, emergency marching powder, and other heatstroke prevention drugs on the appropriate position of the head. (4) After the patient is awake, see if the recovery situation continues the journey. If not, he should be accompanied by a special person and sent to the hospital in time.
Loss of temperature
(What is wind-sensing temperature? What is high-altitude wind? What is the central body temperature? Reference: The human body's central body temperature is 36.5-37 degrees, and the surface of the hands and feet is 35 degrees)
Causes of hypothermia: cold and damp clothing, cold wind on the body, hunger, fatigue, old age, and infirmity.
Symptoms of hypothermia: feeling cold, cold limbs, constant shaking, pale face, memory loss, slurred speech, uncontrolled muscles, slow response, change of temperament or loss of reason, slow pulse, loss of consciousness.
- 40 degrees-recommended rewarming body temperature
- 37 degrees-normal
- 35 degrees-there are signs of hypothermia, trembling.
- 33 degrees-severe, confusion.
- 30 degrees-no sense of acupuncture
- 28 degrees-death
[It is recommended to remember two words to avoid loss of temperature-"diligence", hot-take off! It's cold—plus! It's wet—change it! ]
- Maintain physical strength, stop activities or camp urgently, and continue to eat high-calorie foods.
- Get out of the harsh environment of low temperature, take off cold and wet clothes in time, and replace warm and warm clothes.
- Prevent continued hypothermia, assist in regaining body temperature, and eat hot sugar water.
- Stay awake, give digestive hot food, lie down and throw a thermos into the sleeping bag or conduct the rescuer's body temperature.
- Those who are confused and in serious condition should be soaked in 40 degrees warm water.
- Unconsciousness, artificial respiration, warm water below 40 degrees from the anorectal lavage method directly to the center of re-examination.
- Do not drink alcohol, do not massage your limbs.
High altitude sickness
The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg, and the oxygen content in the air is about 21%.
Usually, the altitude is more than 3000 meters, which is a high altitude area, and most people begin to have altitude sickness when they reach this altitude.
High altitude sickness is caused by the increase in terrain and the decrease in air pressure. The oxygen content in the air decreases with the decrease of air pressure so that oxygen cannot fully enter the human blood, leading to altitude sickness. Different individuals and different climates have different reactions. The key is that everyone adapts differently. There was no altitude response when you climbed up to 6 kilometers before, it doesn't mean that you didn't respond during the last 4 kilometers this time.
Main symptoms: dizziness, tinnitus, vomiting, poor taste, not wanting to eat, lethargy, slight fever. In severe cases, the reaction is slow, rapid breathing, emotional upset, energy, memory loss, and hallucinations.
- Control the daily ascent height, try to control the daily ascent height to about 700 meters.
- The itinerary is reasonable, don't be overly fatigued. (Editor: Many mountain friends responded that it is important to control the load.)
- Drink plenty of water and have a balanced diet.
- Do not go to bed early, do not use your brain, move lightly, and adapt actively.
- Get enough sleep, try not to take medicine unless you need it.
- Supply oxygen, quickly descend, descend to a lower altitude as soon as possible, and leave the high altitude area.
- Patients in shock, give priority to treatment, pay attention to complications such as hypothermia.